Psalm 45 is a Messianic psalm with trinitarian implications which presents Jesus as the anointed One:
6 Your throne, O God, is forever and ever.
The scepter of your kingdom is a scepter of uprightness;
7 you have loved righteousness and hated wickedness.
Therefore God, your God, has anointed you
with the oil of gladness beyond your companions;
Before we examine the ESV commentary on this passage which was written by Old Testament scholar C. John Collins and passed the well respected editorial board of the ESV Study Bible (Grudem, Packer, etc), lets look at some INSPIRED commentary on Psalm 45. This particular commentary was written by the writer of the epistle to the Hebrews under the direction of the Holy Spirit. Here is what the Holy Spirit has to say about the Supremacy of the Son using the quote from Psalm 45:
8But of the Son he [God] says,
“Your throne, O God, is forever and ever,
the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom.
9 You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness;
therefore God, your God, has anointed you
with the oil of gladness beyond your companions.”
It is abundantly clear from this Hebrews commentary on Psalm 45:6-7 that it is the intention of the Holy Spirit to clarify that “Your throne, O God” is “Your throne, O God the Son” and that “God, your God” refers to the trinitarian persons of the Son and the Father, respectively.
Having confirmed that the Holy Spirit makes this clear (Heb 1:8), let us examine the ESV comment below:
Your throne, O God. Many have supposed that these words must address the Davidic king, either as foretelling Christ or as a type that Christ would eventually fulfill. Although the OT does foretell a divine Messiah (e. g., Isa. 9:6), this kind of interpretation does not easily fit this context. It seems better to think that the song speaks to God about his throne (“your throne, O God”), namely, the one that the heir of David occupies, and then goes on to describe the divine ideals for a king’s reign (scepter of uprightness). Hebrews 1:8–9 cites these verses in Greek from the Septuagint as part of the author’s argument that the “Son” is superior to the angels. Hebrews 1 applies the term “Son” to Jesus, probably in his role as the heir of David. Thus Heb. 1:5 puts Ps. 2:7 with 2 Sam. 7:14, where “Son of God” is a title for the Davidic king (see note on Ps. 2:7). This also accounts for the use of the messianic 110:1 in Heb. 1:3, 13.
It would appear that in the first part of the comment, Collins is at odds with the straight-forward interpretation given by Hebrews 1:8: “But of the Son he says…” It is the Son whose throne is forever and ever. It is the Son who is anointed by God. Collins states that it does not “easily fit this context.”
In the second part of the comment, Collins does not aim at the heart of the matter which is the divinity of Christ in this context. He settles on the superiority to angels argument when the Psalm clearly says “God, your God.”
I use the ESV Study Bible and recommend it to the youth in my church, but I was disappointed by the intellectual play I found in this commentary. The whole purpose of Hebrews 1 is to lay down the SUPREMACY and DIVINITY of the Son as foundation for the rest of the book.
So much simpler and easier to just say just like the writer of Hebrews “But of the Son he says… “…God, your God, has anointed you…””